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By Shelby Leith


Welcome to the world of Blue Zones, a concept that's changing our understanding of longevity. In corners of the globe, there are communities where people aren't just living longer—they're thriving well into their later years. These pockets have been termed "Blue Zones," a phrase coined by Dan Buettner, a visionary explorer and author backed by National Geographic.


Buettner's travels and research shine a spotlight on five extraordinary places: Okinawa in Japan, Sardinia in Italy, Nicoya in Costa Rica, Ikaria in Greece, and Loma Linda in California. What's his aim? To find out why folks in these spots often live past 100 without the chronic diseases that plague the rest of the world.


The secret appears to be a mix of lifestyle choices, mixed into what Buettner calls the Power 9—nine habits that are common threads among the world's longest-livers. From moving naturally to prioritizing social connections, these habits might just hold the key to adding more candles to our birthday cakes. Stick around as we dive deeper into these life-extending practices.


Background of Blue Zones


The story of Blue Zones begins with meticulous demographic research by Gianni Pes and Michel Poulain. They first spotted a pattern in Sardinia, Italy, where an unusually large number of men lived past 100. By mapping the birthplaces of these centenarians, they drew blue circles around the villages with the highest longevity, coining the term "Blue Zones."


Their method was straightforward but powerful—identifying regions through population data where people had the longest lifespans. It wasn’t long before Dan Buettner took notice. With an investigative spirit, Buettner teamed up with National Geographic and the world's top longevity researchers to expand this work beyond Sardinia. They aimed to uncover what these longevity hotspots had in common. This global quest deepened the understanding of how lifestyle and environment can impact health and longevity, setting the stage for a broader application of the Blue Zones principles.


Locations of the Blue Zones


Let's take a quick tour of the five Blue Zones, where living past 100 isn't extraordinary; it's expected.


Sardinia, Italy - In Sardinia, Italy, nestled in the rugged mountain highlands, a striking number of men surpass the century mark. This region boasts a high ratio of centenarians, many of whom are robust, hearty, and engaged in their communities.


Okinawa, Japan - Over in Okinawa, Japan, women are in the global lead for longevity. This island is known for its high life expectancy and a significant cluster of female centenarians who enjoy more healthy years than anywhere else.


Nicoya, Costa Rica - Down in Costa Rica, the Nicoya Peninsula is home to a thriving group of elderly folks with some of the world's lowest rates of middle-age mortality. Their secret? A strong cultural focus on family and an active lifestyle.


Ikaria, Greece - Ikaria, Greece, an Aegean gem, is where middle-aged mortality rates are impressively low, and dementia is a rarity. Islanders live a laid-back lifestyle with a diet heavy in vegetables and social gatherings that keep them active and engaged.


Loma Linda, California - Loma Linda, California, stands out in the United States, where Seventh-Day Adventists often live a decade longer than others. This community's faith encourages habits that contribute to their notable longevity.


Each zone, with its unique cultural and geographical backdrop, provides invaluable insights into the art of living longer, healthier lives.


The Power 9: Lessons from the Blue Zones


In the Blue Zones, nine lifestyle habits stand out, painting a picture of how simple daily actions can add up to a longer life. Here's the breakdown:


  1. Move Naturally: People in Blue Zones aren't hitting the gym for heavy workouts. Instead, their daily routines involve natural movements like gardening, walking, and doing their own household chores, which keeps their bodies active without the need for structured exercise

  2. Find Purpose: Waking up with a reason to get out of bed can add up to seven extra years of life. Whether it's a passion, a deep sense of spirituality, or a commitment to family, having a purpose is a shared trait among the world's longest-lived.

  3. De-Stress: Stress isn’t unique to the modern world, but how we handle it is. In Blue Zones, people have routines to combat stress, whether it's prayer, napping, or happy hour with friends.

  4. 80% Rule: 'Hara hachi bu' is a phrase you might hear before meals in Okinawa, reminding people to stop eating when they're 80% full. This practice helps prevent overeating and contributes to a healthier weight.

  5. Eat Plants: While they don’t necessarily exclude meat, Blue Zones populations focus their diets on plant-based foods, especially beans, which are a staple protein source.

  6. Drink Wine: Except for the Adventists in Loma Linda, moderate and regular consumption of wine (often with friends and food) is common. The key is moderation—usually one to two glasses a day.

  7. Find Your Faith: Almost all centenarians interviewed were part of a faith-based community. Regular spiritual community involvement can add years to life expectancy.

  8. Loved Ones First: Putting family first isn't just a saying in Blue Zones. It's common to keep aging relatives close, invest in one’s children, and maintain a supportive life partner—all of which contribute to longevity.

  9. Stick With Your Tribe: Lastly, social circles play a huge role. In Okinawa, for example, 'moais' are groups of lifelong friends who support each other through life’s ups and downs.

Taken together, these Power 9 principles don’t just add years to life—they add life to years, emphasizing quality as much as quantity. They are not quick fixes but lifelong habits that require commitment and community support. And the beauty is, they're accessible to anyone, anywhere.


Living a Blue Life


Applying the principles of the Blue Zones doesn't require a move across the globe. Instead, it's about integrating those habits into our communities, transforming our own towns into places where healthy choices are the easiest to make. The Blue Zones Project, an initiative inspired by the original Blue Zones and their lifestyles, has taken this challenge head-on.


A shining example of this initiative's success is Albert Lea, Minnesota. There, city leaders and citizens banded together to weave the Blue Zone principles into the fabric of daily life. They revamped city planning to encourage walking and biking, introduced healthier menus into schools, and businesses supported these lifestyle changes.


The results? Not only did participants add years to their lives, but the quality of their health improved. This pilot project proved that by adjusting our living environments and daily routines to mirror those of the Blue Zones, longevity isn't just a stroke of luck—it's an attainable goal. The broader aim here is clear: it's about adding life to years, not just years to life, by adopting Blue Zone habits that have stood the test of time and geography.


Shelby is a Registered Pharmacy Technician for over 18 years living in Whitby, Canada. She is a published writer who specializes in the field of medicine, health, nutrition and fitness. She enjoys expressing herself through words and often writes short, descriptive pieces, poetry or songs in her spare time.






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